Houdini 16.0 Expression functions

npoints expression function

Returns the number of points in a geometry.

  • npoints(surface_node)

  • Returns -1 if the surface node cannot be cooked.

    Expression functions

    • abs

      Returns the absolute value of the argument.

    • acos

      Returns the arc-cosine of the argument.

    • angvel

      Returns the angular velocity required to rotate an object from one orientation to another in a certain period of time.

    • arclen

      Returns the arc length of a curve between two U positions.

    • arg

      Returns an argument from a list of HScript-style arguments.

    • argc

      Returns the number of arguments in an HScript-style list of arguments.

    • asin

      Returns the arc-sine of the argument.

    • atan

      Returns the arc-tangent of the argument.

    • atan2

      Returns the arc-tangent of y/x.

    • atof

      Converts a string to a float.

    • bbox

      Returns bounding box information for a surface node.

    • bezier

      Channel segment function: Bezier interpoloation spline

    • boneangle

      Returns the angle at the joint between two bone objects.

    • ceil

      Returns the smallest integer not less than the value passed in.

    • centroid

      Returns centroid information for a surface node.

    • ch

      Returns the value of a parameter.

    • chexist

      Returns 1 if the specified channel exists, 0 if it doesn’t.

    • chf

      Evaluates a parameter at a given frame.

    • chgroup

      return a string containing all of the channels contained in a group.

    • chop

      Evaluates a channel within a CHOP at the current time.

    • chopcf

      Evaluates a channel within a CHOP at a given time.

    • chopci

      Evaluates a channel within a CHOP at a specified sample point.

    • chopct

      Evaluates a channel within a CHOP at a specified time.

    • chope

      Returns the end index of the channels in a CHOP.

    • chopf

      Evaluates a channel within a CHOP with at a given frame.

    • chopi

      Evaluates a channel within a CHOP at a given sample point.

    • chopl

      Returns the length of the channels in a CHOP, in samples.

    • chopn

      Returns the number of data channels within a CHOP.

    • chopr

      Returns the sample rate of a CHOP.

    • chops

      Returns the start index of a CHOP.

    • chopstr

      Returns the string value of a channel within a CHOP at the current time.

    • chopt

      Returns the value of a channel within a CHOP at a specified time.

    • chramp

      Returns the value of a ramp parameter at a specific position.

    • chrampf

      Returns the value of a ramp parameter at a specific position and frame.

    • chrampt

      Returns the value of a ramp parameter at a specific position and time.

    • chs

      Evaluates the string value of a parameter at the current time.

    • chsop

      Evaluates the parameter at the current time as a node path string.

    • chsoplist

      Evaluates the parameter at the current time as a node path list string.

    • chsraw

      Returns the raw (unexpanded) expression value of a parameter as a string.

    • cht

      Returns the value of a parameter at a specified time.

    • clamp

      Returns a value clamped between a minimum and maximum.

    • clamptosphere

      Clamps a vector to always end between a minimum and maximum sphere.

    • constant

      Channel segment function: constant value.

    • cophasmeta

      Tests if metadata exists on a compositing node.

    • copmeta

      Returns numeric metadata from a compositing node.

    • copmeta

      Returns string metadata from a compositing node.

    • cos

      Returns the cosine of the argument.

    • cosh

      Returns the hyperbolic cosine of the argument.

    • cross

      Computes the cross-product of two vectors.

    • cubic

      Channel segment function: cubic spline.

    • cucwc

      Deprecated: current working container for custom panels.

    • cudatatype

      Deprecated: data type of a gadget, for custom panels.

    • cumenuadd

      Deprecated: adds a menu entry on a custom panel.

    • cuquery

      Deprecated: returns a value from a custom panel.

    • curvature

      Returns the curvature of the surface at the given UV coordinates.

    • cutype

      Deprecated: Returns the type of a gadget on a custom panel.

    • cycle

      Channel segment function: repeats animation from previous frames.

    • cycleoffset

      Channel segment function: repeats the animation between frames f1 and f2, accumulating the value.

    • cycleoffsett

      Channel segment function: repeats the animation between times t1 and t2, accumulating the value.

    • cyclet

      Channel segment function: repeats animation from previous frames.

    • deg

      Converts from radians to degrees.

    • degree

      Returns the degree a specified face or hull.

    • detail

      Returns the value of a detail attribute.

    • detailattribsize

      Returns the number of components in a detail attribute.

    • detailattribtype

      Returns the type of a detail attribute.

    • details

      Returns the string value of a detail attribute.

    • detailsmap

      Returns a string from a list of strings in a detail attribute.

    • detailsnummap

      Returns the number of unique stings bound to a detail attribute.

    • determinant

      Returns the determinant of a matrix.

    • dihedral

      Computes the dihedral matrix between vectors v0 and v1.

    • distance

      Returns the distance between two 3D points.

    • dopallfields

      Returns a space separated list of all the field names that can be passed to the dopfield function.

    • dopcontextgeo

      Returns the full path of the node connected to a dopnetwork.

    • dopcountslices

      Returns the number of records of a given type in a piece of dynamics data.

    • dopfield

      Returns the value of a field as a float.

    • dopfieldname

      Returns the name of a DOP field.

    • dopfields

      Returns the value of a DOP field as a string.

    • dopfieldtype

      Returns the type of a DOP field.

    • dopframe

      Returns the current frame of the simulation.

    • dopframetost

      Returns the simulation time equivalent of a simulation frame.

    • dopgrouphasobject

      Returns 1 if a specified DOP group contains a specified object.

    • dopgroupismutual

      Returns 1 if a specified DOP group is mutually affecting.

    • dopgrouplist

      returns a string containing a list of all object groups for the current time in a specified DOP Network.

    • dophasfield

      Returns 1 if a specified DOP field exists.

    • dophassubdata

      Returns 1 if a dynamics object has the specified subdata.

    • dopnodeobjs

      Returns the list of objects processed by a DOP in the latest timestep.

    • dopnumfields

      Returns the number of fields in a DOP record type.

    • dopnumobjects

      returns the number of objects in a simulation.

    • dopnumrecords

      Returns the number of records of a given type in a piece of dynamics data.

    • dopnumrecordtypes

      Returns the number of types of record in a piece of dynamics data.

    • dopnumsubdata

      Returns the number of subdata items attached to an object or data.

    • dopobjectlist

      Returns all objects matching the an object specification.

    • dopobjectsareaffectors

      Tests whether a set of objects has an affector relationship with another object.

    • dopobjscreatedby

      Returns the list of objects created by a particular DOP node.

    • dopoption

      Returns the value of a DOP field as a float.

    • dopoptions

      Returns the value of a DOP field as a string.

    • doprecordtypename

      Returns the name of a record in DOPs data given its index.

    • dopsolvedopnet

      Script solver support function.

    • dopsolvenewobject

      Script solver support function.

    • dopsolvenumnewobjects

      Script solver support function.

    • dopsolvenumobjects

      Script solver support function.

    • dopsolveobject

      Script solver support function.

    • dopsolvetimestep

      Script solver support function.

    • dopsttoframe

      returns the simulation frame of a given simulation time.

    • dopsttot

      Returns the global time of a given simulation time.

    • dopsubdataname

      Returns the name of a subdata of a given DOP object.

    • doptime

      Returns the current time of a simulation.

    • doptransform

      Returns a transformation matrix associated with a piece of data.

    • dopttost

      Returns the simulation time equivalent to a given global time.

    • dopvelatpos

      Returns the velocity that a point at a location in simulation space would have if it were attached to a DOP object.

    • dot

      Computes the dot product of two vectors.

    • ease

      Channel segment function: ease-in and -out.

    • easein

      Channel segment function: ease-in.

    • easeinp

      Channel segment function: ease-in with configurable acceleration.

    • easeout

      Channel segment function: ease-out

    • easeoutp

      Channel segment function: ease-out with configurable acceleration.

    • easep

      Channel segment function: ease-in and -out with configurable acceleration.

    • edgegrouplist

      Returns the list of edge groups in a surface node.

    • edgegroupmask

      Returns the list of edge groups matching a pattern in a surface node.

    • eval

      Evaulates a string as an expression returning a float.

    • evals

      Evaulates a string as an expression returning a string.

    • execute

      Runs a string as an HScript command and returns the command’s output.

    • executeb

      Runs a string as an HScript command and returns the command and error output.

    • executee

      Runs a string as an HScript command and returns any error output.

    • exp

      Returns the logarithmic exponentiation of the argument.

    • explodematrix

      Explodes a 3×3 or 4×4 matrix into the euler rotations required to rebuild it.

    • explodematrixp

      Explodes a 3×3 or 4×4 matrix into the euler rotations required to rebuild it.

    • findfile

      Searches the Houdini path for a file.

    • findfiles

      Searches the Houdini path for a file or directory.

    • fit

      Fits a value from one range to another.

    • fit01

      Fits a value to the 0-1 range.

    • fit10

      Fits a number in the 0-1 range.

    • fit11

      Fits a number to the -1 to 1 range.

    • floor

      Returns the largest integer not greater than a number.

    • frac

      Returns the fractional part of a floating-point number.

    • ftoa

      Converts a number to a string.

    • groupbyval

      Returns a string describing the set of elements with a given value for an integer attribute.

    • groupbyvals

      Returns a string describing the set of elements with a given value for a string attribute.

    • hasdetailattrib

      Returns 1 if a specified detail attribute exists.

    • haspoint

      Returns 1 if a specified point is in a specified group.

    • haspointattrib

      Returns 1 if a specified point attribute exists.

    • hasprim

      Returns 1 if a specified primitive is in a specified group.

    • hasprimattrib

      Returns 1 if a specified primitive attribute exists.

    • hasvertexattrib

      Returns 1 if a specified vertex attribute exists.

    • hextoint

      Converts a hexadecimal argument string into an integer.

    • hsv

      Converts RGB values to HSV components.

    • ic

      Evaluates a CHOP’s input channel at a specific index.

    • ice

      Returns the end index of a CHOP’s input.

    • icl

      Returns the length of a CHOP’s input, in samples.

    • icmax

      Evaluates a CHOP’s input channel’s maximum value.

    • icmin

      Evaluates a CHOP’s input channel’s minimum value.

    • icn

      Returns the number of channels in a CHOP’s input.

    • icr

      Returns the sample rate of a CHOP’s input.

    • ics

      Returns the start index of a CHOP’s input.

    • identity

      Creates an identity matrix.

    • if

      Returns the value of the second or third argument depending on the truth of the first argument.

    • ifs

      Returns the string value of the second or third argument depending on the truth of the first argument.

    • index

      Finds the first occurrence of a pattern in a string.

    • instancepoint

      Returns the point number currently being instanced onto.

    • int

      Converts a number to an integer by truncating any fractional part.

    • inttohex

      Converts a number into a hexadecimal string.

    • invert

      Inverts a matrix.

    • iprquery

      Queries numeric (floating point) data from an interactive render pane.

    • iprquerys

      Queries textual (string) data from an interactive render pane.

    • isclosed

      Returns 1 if a primitive is closed.

    • iscollided

      Returns 1 if a specified point has collided with something.

    • ishvariable

      Returns 1 if a specified Houdini environment variable exists.

    • isspline

      Returns 1 if a specified primitive is a NURBs or Bezier curve or surface.

    • isstuck

      Returns 1 if a specified point is a stuck particle.

    • isvariable

      Returns 1 if a specified Houdini or system environment variable exists.

    • iswrapu

      Returns 1 if a specified primitive is wrapped in U.

    • iswrapv

      Returns 1 if a specified primitive is wrapped in V.

    • length

      Returns the length of a vector.

    • linear

      Channel segment function: linear interpolation.

    • listbyval

      Returns a list of elements with a given value for an integer attribute.

    • listbyvals

      Returns a list of elements with a given value for a string attribute.

    • lock

      Returns a value that cannot be changed.

    • log

      Returns the natural logarithm of the argument.

    • log10

      Returns the base 10 logarithm of the argument.

    • match

      Channel segment function: matches the incoming and outgoing slopes.

    • matchin

      Channel segment function: matches the incoming slope.

    • matchout

      Channel segment function: matches the outgoing slope.

    • matrix

      Converts a string specification into a matrix.

    • matrixtoquat

      Converts a rotation matrix to a quaternion.

    • max

      Returns the larger of two values.

    • mcols

      Returns the number of columns in a matrix.

    • metaweight

      Returns the weight of a metaball at a specific location.

    • min

      Returns the smaller of two values.

    • mindist

      Finds the smallest distance between a point and a primitive.

    • mlookat

      Computes the transformation matrix of a lookat from one vector to another.

    • mlookatup

      Computes the transformation matrix of a lookat from one vector to another, with an up vector.

    • mobjlookat

      Computes the transformation matrix of a lookat from one object to another.

    • modblend

      Blends the two modular values.

    • morient

      Computes the transformation matrix to orient along specific Z and Y axes.

    • mousepane

      Returns the full name of the pane currently under the mouse pointer.

    • mousepath

      Returns the node path of the pane currently under the mouse pointer.

    • mrows

      Returns the number of rows in a matrix.

    • mzero

      Returns a matrix with all values set to 0.

    • nearpoint

      Finds the point in a geometry nearest to specific 3D coordinates.

    • noise

      Generates 3D noise.

    • normal

      Returns the components of the surface normal specific UV coordinates.

    • normalize

      Normalizes a vector.

    • npoints

      Returns the number of points in a geometry.

    • npointsgroup

      Returns the number of points in the specified group.

    • nprims

      Returns the number of primitives in a surface node.

    • nprimsgroup

      Returns the number of primitives in the specified group.

    • nuniquevals

      Returns the number of unique values for an integer or string attribute in a surface node.

    • objkinoverride

      Returns the current global kinematic override setting for bone objects.

    • objlightmask

      Returns a list of lights matching an object’s light mask.

    • objlookat

      Computes the rotation vector of a lookat from one object to another.

    • objpretransform

      Returns an object’s pre-transform matrix.

    • oc

      Returns the value of a CHOP’s output at a specific sample index.

    • oldrand

      Returns a pseudo-random number between 0 and 1.

    • opblist

      Returns the full paths of all operators in a bundle.

    • opcreator

      Returns the creator of this node.

    • opdigits

      Returns the numeric suffix of a node name.

    • opexist

      Returns 1 if the specified node, group, or bundle exists.

    • opflag

      Returns a list nodes with a particular flag set.

    • opfullpath

      Returns the full path of a node.

    • opfullpathfrom

      Returns the path of a node relative to another node.

    • opid

      Returns the unique ID of a node.

    • opinput

      Returns the name of the node connected to a given input.

    • opinputpath

      Returns the full path of the node connected to a given input.

    • opisloading

      Returns 1 if Houdini is currently loading a scene file.

    • opisquitting

      Returns 1 if Houdini is currently shutting down.

    • oplightmask

      Returns a list of lights matching an object’s light mask.

    • opname

      Returns the name of a node given its path.

    • opnchildren

      Returns the number of nodes inside a container node.

    • opninputs

      Returns the maximum number of connected inputs.

    • opnoutputs

      Returns the number of nodes connected to a node’s output.

    • opoutput

      Returns the name of a node connected a given node’s output.

    • opoutputpath

      Returns the full path of a node connected a given node’s output.

    • oppinput

      Deprecated: replaced by opinput.

    • oppwd

      Returns the path of the current network.

    • oppwf

      Prints the path of the current network.

    • oprelativepath

      Returns the relative path from one node to another.

    • opselect

      Returns a list of the selected nodes.

    • opselectpath

      Returns a list of the full paths of selected nodes.

    • opselectrecurse

      Returns a recursive list of the selected nodes.

    • opselectrecursepath

      Returns a recursive list of the full paths of selected nodes.

    • opstreamname

      Computes the active stream of a node.

    • opsubpath

      Returns the full path of a node including any containing subnets.

    • optransform

      Returns the transformation matrix of an object at the current time.

    • optype

      Returns the type of a node.

    • optypeinfo

      Returns type information about a node.

    • origin

      Returns components of an object’s transforms.

    • originoffset

      Returns components of an object’s offset transforms.

    • padzero

      Returns a string padding a number to a given length with zeros.

    • param

      Deprecated: use stamp instead.

    • parmisstring

      Returns 1 if a specified parameter is a string.

    • pic

      Returns the color of a pixel in a compositing node.

    • picni

      Returns the non-interpolated color of a pixel in a compositing node.

    • pluralize

      Converts an English noun to its plural.

    • point

      Returns the value of a point attribute.

    • pointattribsize

      Returns the number of components in a point attribute.

    • pointattribtype

      Returns the type of a point attribute.

    • pointavg

      Returns the average of an attribute across all points in a geometry.

    • pointdist

      Returns the distance between a point and a primitive.

    • pointgrouplist

      Returns the list of point groups in a surface node.

    • pointgroupmask

      Returns the list of point groups matching a pattern in a surface node.

    • pointlist

      Returns a list of all points in a point group.

    • pointneighbours

      Lists points that share a minimum number of primitives with a specified point.

    • pointpattern

      Returns a list of points that match a specified pattern.

    • points

      Returns the string value of a point attribute.

    • pointsmap

      Returns a string from a list of strings in a point attribute.

    • pointsnummap

      Returns the number of unique strings bound to a point attribute.

    • popcontextgeo

      Returns the full path to a particle network context geometry.

    • popevent

      Returns 1 if a particle event is occurring.

    • popeventtime

      Returns the time of a particle event.

    • poppoint

      Returns the value of a particle attribute, by particle number.

    • poppointid

      Returns the value of a particle attribute, by particle ID.

    • poppointnum

      Returns the point number of the particle with the specified ID.

    • poppoints

      Returns the string value of a particle attribute, by particle number.

    • poppointsid

      Returns the string value of a particle attribute, by particle ID.

    • pow

      Raises a number to an exponent.

    • prim

      Returns the value of a primitive attribute.

    • primattribsize

      Returns the number of components in a primitive attribute.

    • primattribtype

      Returns the type of a primitive attribute.

    • primdist

      Returns the minimum distance and closest points between two primitives.

    • primduv

      Returns the partial derivatives of a primitive attribute.

    • primgrouplist

      Returns the list of primitive groups in a surface node.

    • primgroupmask

      Returns the list of groups matching a pattern in a surface node.

    • primlist

      Returns a list of all primitives in a surface node.

    • primneighbours

      Lists primitives that share a minimum number of points with a specified primitive.

    • prims

      Returns the string value of a primitive attribute.

    • primsmap

      Returns a string from a list of strings in a primitive attribute.

    • primsnummap

      Returns the number of unique strings bound to a primitive attribute.

    • primuv

      Returns the value of a primitive attribute at a certain UV location.

    • print

      Prints a message to the console.

    • property

      Similar to ch(), but for render properties, with a default if the property doesn’t exist.

    • propertyf

      Evaluates a render property at a given frame.

    • propertys

      Evaluates the string value of a render property at the current time.

    • propertysop

      Evaluates a render property at the current time as a node path string.

    • propertysraw

      Evaluates the raw (unexpanded) string value of a render property at the current time.

    • propertyt

      Evaluates a render property at a given time.

    • pulse

      Returns 1 when a value is within a certain range.

    • pythonexprf

      Evaluates a Python expression, returning a float result.

    • pythonexprs

      Evaluates a Python expression, returning a string result.

    • qlinear

      Channel segment function: uses quaternions to interpolate.

    • quattomatrix

      Converts quaternion to a 3×3 rotation matrix.

    • quintic

      Channel segment function: smoothly interpolates slopes and accelerations.

    • rad

      Converts from degrees to radians.

    • rand

      Returns a pseudo-random number from 0 to 1.

    • raw

      Channel segment function.

    • realuv

      Converts unit UV to real UV.

    • repeat

      Channel segment function: repeats animation from previous frames.

    • repeatt

      Channel segment function: repeats animation from previous frames.

    • res

      Returns the natural resolution of the image in a compositing node.

    • rgb

      Converts HSV values to RGB components.

    • rindex

      Finds the last occurrence of a pattern in a string.

    • rint

      Rounds to the nearest integer.

    • rotate

      Returns a 4×4 rotation matrix from an axis and angle.

    • rotaxis

      Returns a 4×4 rotation matrix from an angle and a vector.

    • round

      Rounds a number to the nearest integer.

    • run

      Runs a string as an HScript command and returns the command’s output.

    • runb

      Runs a string as an HScript command and returns the command and error output.

    • rune

      Runs a string as an HScript command and returns any error output.

    • scale

      Takes three scaling values and returns a scale matrix.

    • seampoints

      Lists all seam points in a surface node.

    • seqanim

      Returns 1 if a specified compositing node has an animated sequence.

    • seqend

      Returns the end frame of a compositing node’s image sequence.

    • seqlength

      Returns the number of frames in a compositing node’s image sequence.

    • seqstart

      Returns the start frame of a compositing node’s image sequence.

    • shopstring

      Returns the shader string generated by a shader.

    • sign

      Returns -1, 0, or 1 depending on the sign of the argument.

    • sin

      Returns the sine of the argument.

    • sinh

      Returns the hyperbolic sine of the argument.

    • smooth

      Takes a value and range and returns a smooth interpolation between 0 and 1.

    • snoise

      Generates sparse convolution 3D noise.

    • spknot

      Returns a knot value on a spline curve or surface.

    • spline

      Channel segment function: fits a curve to the keyframes.

    • sqrt

      Returns the square root of the argument.

    • stamp

      Returns a copy stamping floating point value.

    • stamps

      Returns a copy stamping string value.

    • strcasecmp

      Compares two strings, ignoring case.

    • strcasematch

      Returns 1 if a string matches a pattern, ignoring case.

    • strcat

      Returns the concatenation of two strings.

    • strcmp

      Compares two strings.

    • strdup

      Duplicates a string.

    • stripmatrix

      Strips non-essential characters from the string representation of a matrix or vector.

    • strlen

      Returns the number of characters in a string.

    • strmatch

      Returns 1 if a string matches a pattern, including case.

    • strreplace

      Replaces substrings with a new string.

    • sturb

      Generates spatially coherent 3D noise based on sparse convolution.

    • substr

      Returns a substring of a string.

    • surflen

      Returns the length of the 3D curve between two points on a surface.

    • system

      Runs a system command line and returns the output.

    • systemES

      Runs a system command line and returns the exit status.

    • systemRAW

      Runs a system command line and returns the output with no processing.

    • tan

      Returns the tangent of the argument.

    • tanh

      Returns the hyperbolic tangent of the argument.

    • tex

      Returns the interpolated color of a point on an on-disk texture map.

    • texni

      Returns the non-interpolated color of a point on an on-disk texture map.

    • tolower

      Returns the all-lowercase version of a string.

    • toupper

      Returns the all-uppercase version of a string.

    • translate

      Takes X, Y, and Z translation values and returns a translation matrix.

    • transpose

      Transposes a matrix.

    • trunc

      Converts a number to an integer by truncating any fractional part, rounding towards 0.

    • turb

      Generates spatially coherent 3D noise.

    • uniqueval

      Returns a unique value of an integer attribute.

    • uniquevals

      Returns a unique value of a string attribute.

    • unituv

      Converts real UV to unit UV.

    • uvdist

      Returns the distance between parameteric locations on two primitives.

    • vangle

      Returns the angle between two vectors.

    • vector

      Converts a string specification into a vector.

    • vector3

      Converts three values into a 3-component vector.

    • vector4

      Converts four values into a 4-component vector.

    • vertex

      Returns the value of a vertex attribute.

    • vertexattribsize

      Returns the number of components in a vertex attribute.

    • vertexattribtype

      Returns the type of a vertex attribute.

    • vertexs

      Returns the string value of a vertex attribute.

    • vertexsmap

      Returns a string from a list of strings in a vertex attribute.

    • vertexsnummap

      Returns the number of unique strings bound to a point attribute.

    • vlength

      Returns the length of a vector.

    • vlength2

    • vmatch

      Channel segment function: matches the incoming and outgoing slopes.

    • vmatchin

      Channel segment function: matches the incoming slope.

    • vmatchout

      Channel segment function: matches the outgoing slope.

    • volumeaverage

      Returns the average value of all the voxels in a volume.

    • volumegradient

      Returns the gradient of a volume primitive at a specified location.

    • volumeindex

      Returns the value of a volume primitive at a specified voxel.

    • volumeindextopos

      Converts volume voxel coordinates to world-space coordinates.

    • volumemax

      Returns the maximum value of all voxels in a volume.

    • volumemin

      Returns the minimum value of all voxels in a volume.

    • volumepostoindex

      Converts world space coordinates to volume voxel coordinates.

    • volumeres

      Returns the resolution of a volume.

    • volumesample

      Returns the value of a volume at a specified position.

    • volumevoxeldiameter

      Returns the approximage diameter of a volume voxel in world space.

    • vorigin

      Returns a vector of an objects' transforms.

    • vpname

      Takes a viewer name and a viewport number and returns the viewport’s name.

    • vrorigin

      Returns a vector of an object’s rotations.

    • vscale

      Multiplies a vector by a scaling factor.

    • vset

      Creates a vector with each component set to the same value.

    • vsize

      Returns the number of elements in a vector.

    • vtorigin

      Returns a vector of an object’s translations.

    • wrap

      Wraps a value between a minimum and maximum.

    • xyzdist

      Returns the distance between a 3D coordinate and a primitive.