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The finite element solver will recognize and use attributes on the simulated geometry. In the DOP network, this simulation geometry is attached to the simulated object as a sim-data with name Geometry. When an object is created, then the geometry and all the corresponding attributes are read from the Initial Geometry. This includes the standard position and velocity point attributes P and v.

The finite element solve supports input attributes and output attributes. Some attributes, such as the simulation state, are both input and output attributes. The input attributes include multiplier attributes for material properties, fracture attributes, and attributes for controlling target positions and corresponding hard/soft constraints. The output attributes include optional attributes for tet quality, energy densities, FEM node forces, collision info attributes and fracture info attributes.

Material Property Multiplier Attributes

Each of the material properties of a simulated object can be locally modified using multiplier point attributes. As a rule, each of the material properties in the Model tab of an object can be affected by a multiplier attribute. As a rule, the name of the parameter is the name of the attribute. The name of the attribute is the name that is displayed after "Parameter:" when you hover over a parameter with your mouse cursor.

You can locally change the material properties of the object using point attributes. For example, you can make some polygons resists stretching and bending more than other polygons. These attributes work as multipliers for the parameters in the Model tab: The stiffness multiplier is a convenient way to modify the local stiffness for all object types that are recognized by the finite element solver:

Name Class Type Description
stiffness Point Float Multiplier for all types of stiffnesses.
dampingratio Point Float Multiplier for all damping ratios.
massdensity Point Float Multiplier for all mass densities.

For solid objects, the following multiplier point attributes can be used to modify the local behavior:

Name Class Type Description
solidstiffness Point Float Multiplier for both the shape stiffness and the volume stiffness of a Solid Object.
solidshapestiffness Point Float Multiplier for the shape stiffness of a Solid Object.
solidvolumestiffness Point Float Multiplier for the volume stiffness of a Solid Object.
solidmassdensity Point Float Multiplier for the mass density of a Solid Object.

Fracturing Control Attributes

When you create a simulation with fracturing, it is recommended to specify chunks of tetrahedrons that you want to stay together. Otherwise, the fracturing process may create a very large amount of separate pieces, many of which may consist of single tetrahedrons. For this purpose, you can assign a nonnegative integer to each chunk using the fracturepart attribute. In areas where you don’t want to specify parts, you can set fracturepart to -1, which means that each primitive in that region will become its own part. Real-life materials tend not to be equally strong everywhere. For realistic results, it is recommended to vary the Fracture Threshold locally using the vertex attribute fracturethreshold.

fracturepart Primitive Integer Partitions the object into unbreakable parts. Must be either -1 (no part) or a nonnegative number that indicates a part.
enablefracturing Point/Vertex Integer Locally enable/disable fracturing for points or vertices.
fracturethreshold Point/Vertex Float Multiplier for the object’s Fracture Threshold.

Drag Force Control Attributes

The behavior of the drag force can be modified locally using the following attributes:

normaldrag Primitive Float Multiplier for the object’s Normal Drag.
tangentdrag Primitive Float Multiplier for the object’s Tangent Drag.

Reference Attributes

The attribute restP can be used to specify the rest position for all the object points. The attribute materialP is similar to the rest position, but it must not be changed during a simulation. Among other things, materialP defines the mass and the strength of the internal forces that act within the simulation geometry. The attribute materialP can be thought of as an initial rest position. table>>

The attribute baseP can be used to specify a generic base position for all the object points. This attribute’s values must not be changed during a simulation. When the user does not specify baseP, the solver creates this point attribute based on the point positions on the creation frame. This attribute is used as a fallback; whenever the user does not specify materialP, the attribute baseP is read instead. In the same way, baseP is used as a fallback for when no restP or targetP attributes are provided. Finally, baseP is used to bind the simulated and the embedded geometry, in the embedded workflow (e.g., a T-pose). This embedded binding looks at the baseP position attribute on both the simulated geometry and the embedded geometry. If no baseP attribute is provided by the user on the embedded geometry, the solver creates the baseP attribute on the embedded geometry based on the position P at the creation frame.

The attribute initialpid stores the initial point index for each point. This is the point index at the creation time of the object. This attribute is created only when fracturing is enabled on both the object and the solver. The finite element solver uses this attribute for the options Import Rest Geometry and Import Target Geometry to transfer animated positions and velocities in SOPs to the current fractured topology in the simulated object.

Name Class Type Description
initialpid Point Integer Initial point index for each point.

Target Attributes

Target attributes can be used to make a simulated object partially follow a target animation. The attribute targetP can be used to specify a target position for each object point. When you use the Import Target Geometry option on the simulated object, the targetP will be set automatically every frame. Alternatively, you can create and modify these attributes yourself, using a Multi Solver and a SOP Solver. The target positions and velocities allow the user to mix animation and simulation in a very stable way (assuming the Target Strength and Target Damping parameters have been set on the object). You can set the Target Strength and Target Damping parameters on the object to express how strongly the object should match the target position and velocity, respectively. This is a way to create soft constraints. You can use the pintoanimation to create hard constraints that make the simulated points follow targetP exactly.

Name Class Type Description
targetP Point or Vertex Vector Target position of each point.
targetstrength Point Float Multiplier for the object’s Target Strength. If this attribute is missing, a multiplier of 1 is used at all points.
targetdamping Point Float Multiplier for the object’s Target Damping. If this attribute is missing, a multiplier of 1 is used at all points.
pintoanimation Point Int When 1, the point is hard constrained to the target animation (e.g., targetP). When zero, the point is unconstrained.

State Attributes

Below is a list of attributes that are maintained internally by the solver. Each of these attributes is written to at the end of each solve and read from at the start of the next solve. You should not modify any of these attributes yourself. When you do, the solver is likely to become unstable and you will get bad results. However, you can inspect the values in these attributes in your network for visualization or for the creation of secondary effects.

At each frame, the finite element solver computes a new physical state for each simulated object. The physical state of the object is represented by the point attributes P and v, representing the position and velocity, respectively. The solver’s integration scheme maintains additional attributes a for acceleration and j for jerk.

The point attributes P, v, a, and j store the current integration state of the object. These attributes should not be modified during the simulation because the finite element solver will become unstable and produce low-quality results.

Name Class Type Description
P Point Vector Do not modify! Current position of each object point.
v Point Vector Do not modify! Current velocity of each object point.
accel Point Vector Do not modify! Current acceleration of each object point.
jerk Point Vector Do not modify! Current jerk of each object point.

The solver itself maintains the attribute restPprevious, which should not be modified outside the solver.

Name Class Type Description
restPprevious Point or Vertex Vector Do not modify! Previous rest positions maintained by the solver.

Embedded Geometry Attributes

These attributes are created on the Embedded Geometry of the Solid Object. The parent attribute is maintained by the embedding code itself, and should not be modified. The baseP point attribute can be provided on the Embedded Geometry by the user to control the binding between the simulated geometry and the embedded geometry. If no baseP is provided, it will be copied from the point positions stored in P at the creation frame. The alignment happens relative to the baseP point attribute on the simulated geometry. If the simulated geometry has a materialP vertex or point attribute, then this attribute takes precedence, allowing control per vertex, rather than per point, if necessary. When you want to ensure that embedded geometry ends up on the desired side of a fracture between simulated geometry, you can use the combination of vertex attributes baseP on the embedded geometry and restP on the simulated geometry. This allows you to line up the embedded geometry with the separate parts in the simulated geometry, for example using the Exploded View SOP. The fracturepart attribute allows you to make sure that the embedded geometry follows the right parts when it gets fractured. When both the simulated and the embedded geometry have the fracturepart attribute, the finite element solver will parent embedded geometry to simulated geometry that has the same fracture part.

Name Class Type Description
parent Primitive Float The index of a parent primitive in the simulated geometry.
baseP Point Float Base positions used for alignment with simulated mesh.
fracturepart Point or Vertex Float Optional user-specified fracture part ID.
P Point Float Positions that correspond to the deformed state.
v Point Float Velocities that correspond to the deformed state.
N Point or Vertex Float Normals that correspond to the deformed state.

Optional Output Attributes

These are attributes that are optionally generated by the solver, when the generation is enabled on the simulated object. These attributes can be useful for visualization, for example, using the Finite Element Visualization SOP. Additionally, these attributes may be used to create secondary effects, for example, particles flying off in regions where fracturing occurs. The optional output attributes are also expected by the Finite Element Visualization SOP.

The following attribute is generated when Create Quality Attributes is turned on:

Name Class Type Description
quality Primitive Float A quality metric between 0 (worst) and 1 (best)

Finite element simulation tends to be sensitive to the quality of the incoming primitives. Low quality primitives may slow down, destabilize or lock a finite element simulation. Low quality primitives are best avoided by using the Solid Embed as a tool to create your tet mesh. Although various quality metrics exist for tetrahedra, the one that’s generated by the solver in this attribute is the one that best matches Houdini’s finite element solution.

The solver generates energy-density attributes for each object that has Create Energy Attributes turned on. The material property settings in the Model tab and the corresponding multiplier attributes result in potential energy, energy dissipation and kinetic energy. For each of these three contributions, local densities are computed within the solver. These densities and quantities derived from them are used to determine the motion and behavior of the objects that are solved by the finite element solver.

Name Class Type Description
potentialdensity Point Float The local density of deformation energy
dissipationdensity Point Float The local density of the rate of energy loss
kineticdensity Point Float The local density of the kinetic energy

The potentialdensity attribute is directly affected by the stiffness parameters in the Model tab. The kineticdensity is proportional to the mass density that is specified for the object. The dissipationdensity is related to the damping settings.

If Create Fracture Attributes is enabled on the simulated object, then the fracturecount point attribute is created. The point attribute fracturecount maintains for each point, the number of times that the point has been involved in a fracture. So any point with a nonzero value of fracturecount has been involved fracturing.

Name Class Type Description
fracturecount Point Integer The number of times a point was fractured during the simulation

Legacy Attributes

In most situations where you want to influence a finite-element simulation, you will want to use soft constraints to achieve this, for example, target constraints, region constraints, or the target strength/damping settings on the object. These are first-class solver features that work in a stable way with the solver and should produce high quality results when used correctly. Purely for backwards compability, a force force attribute is still supported. Because the force force attribute lacks essential information that the solver needs, this attribute cannot be relied on when stability and quality are important. When setting up a new sim, alternatives such as soft targeting, region constraints and animated rest positions should be considered instead of the force force attribute.

Name Class Type Description
fexternal Force Vector External force density
force Force Vector Another name for external force density

Dynamics nodes