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Torque is expressed as a force applied to a position relative to the particle’s frame of reference. You specify an offset from the particle, and a direction and magnitude to apply to that offset point. As the offset position moves, the particle’s frame of reference (and so any instanced geometry) rotates with it.

Torque is to Angular Velocity what Force is to Velocity.

Because the **Position** and **Force** parameters are in the *particle’s
frame of reference*, given the same position and force values, the
particle will have the same rotation at each step.

Use the Rotation POP if you want to rotate particle frame of reference using angular values instead of torque.

Tip

To see the effect of this operator in the viewer, turn on the particle axes option in the viewer’s display options. This lets you see the particle’s frame of reference rotating.

This operator modifies the `torque`

attribute.

## Parameters

Activation

Turns this node on and off. The node is only active if this value is greater than 0. This is useful to control the effect of this node with an expression.

Note that this is activation of the node as a whole. You can’t use this parameter to deactivate the node for certain particles.

Source Group

Only affect a group of points (created with, for example, a Group POP or Collision POP) out of all the points in the input.

## Torque

Force

Force magnitude

A vector describing the force direction and magnitude. The direction of the vector controls the direction of the force, and the length of the vector controls the intensity of the force.

For example, a value of (0, 1, 0) would create a force straight up. A value of (0, 2, 0) would represent force in the same direction but twice as strong.

Position

Offset position at which to apply the force. The farther away from the center, the greater the torque. The combination of the force direction and the offset direction determine the axis of spin which the torque will induce. The particle will have a torque causing it to spin around an axis perpendicular to both the offset position and the force direction.

Scale

Overall force scaling factor.

## Noise

The parameters on this tab add randomness to the torque. This makes particles more or less affected by the torque at random, creating a less uniform effect. The randomness is added to the Force vector prior to the calculation of the torque.

Seed

Seed value for the random turbulence generator.

Turbulence

Number of iterations of fractal noise to add.

Roughness

Scale of noise added with each iteration.

Exponent

Noise attenuation exponent.

Frequency

Spatial frequency of noise field in X, Y, and Z.

Amplitude

Maximum value of noise field.

Offset

Amount to shift noise along X, Y, and Z axes.

Noise Type

Method used to generate noise. **Hermite Interpolation** and **Improved Hermite** are fastest.

Hermite Interpolation

Uses splines to interpolate values in the noise field.

Sparse Convolution

More computationally expensive, but produces noise fields free of artifacts present in the Hermite methods.

Improved Hermite

Uses a more linear interpolation than Hermite interpolation.

Alligator Noise

Provides a very different look than the other noise types.

## Locals

Standard POP local variables

AGE

The seconds a particle in the template has been alive.

AX AY AZ

Acceleration of the particle.

BBX BBY BBZ

The point’s relative position in the bounding box.

DEAD

Point is dead.

ITER

Processing iteration number.

JUSTHIT

A collision for this particle was detected (for example, by the
Collision POP) during the processing of this *timestep* (that
is, this iteration of the particle simulation). This variable is
cleared at the beginning of each timestep. Note that the
collision POP actually detects any collisions which would have
occurred the during the previous frame.

LIFE

Percent of total life used (from 0 to 1).

LIFESPAN

Expected lifetime of particle.

MAPU MAPV MAPW

Point or vertex texture coordinates.

NPT

Total number of points.

NGRP

Total number of points in source group.

NX NY NZ

Normal vector.

PT

The point number of the currently processed point. The `PT`

is not constant like `ID`

; it changes based on the number of points.

RESTX RESTY RESTZ

The rest position.

SLIDING

The sliding state of the particle.

SPRINGK

Elasticity of a point.

STOPPED

Point is stopped.

STUCK

1 if particle is stuck to a collision object.

TENSION

Spring tension.

TIMEINC

Time increment.

TX TY TZ

Point position.

U V

Surface UV values.

VX VY VZ

Velocity direction.

WEIGHT

Point spline weight.

Added by Collision POP/Limit POP

DIST

Distance from particle to last collision.

HCR HCG HCB

Diffuse color at the collision point on the surface the particle collided with.

HITID

ID for last collision. You can control how this attribute is set in the Collision or Limit POP to help distinguish types of collisions.

HITTIME

The time at which the last collision occurred.

HMAPU HMAPV

The texture map UV coordinates for the surface location where the last collision occurred.

HNX HNY HNZ

The normal at the surface location where the last collision occurred.

HTX HTY HTZ

World space position of the last collision.

HU HV

The UV coordinates for the surface location where the last collision occurred.

NUMHIT

Number of times the particle has collided.

Added by Color POP

CA

Point or vertex alpha value.

CR CG CB

Diffuse point or vertex color.

Added by Property POP

ATTRACT

Attractor point.

CHARGE

Charge of the particle.

CLING

Point is clinging to geometry.

DRAG

Point drag.

FOLLOW

Leader to follow.

MASS

Point mass.

PSCALE

Particle Scale.

SCALEX SCALEY SCALEZ

Non-uniform scale.

Added by Proximity POP

NEAREST

Either the point number or id of the particle nearest to this one.

NEARESTDIST

The distance to the nearest particle.

NUMPROXIMITY

The number of particles within a specified proximity to this particle.

Added by Rotation POP

ROTA

Rotation angle.

ROTX ROTY ROTZ

Rotation axis.

Added by Source POP

GEN

Generation.

ID

ID number, which always remains constant.

ORIGIN

Original Source point was birthed from.

PARENT

Parent’s ID Number.

Added by Speed Limit POP

SPEEDMAX

Maximum speed.

SPEEDMIN

Minimum speed.

Added by Sprite POP

SROT

Sprite rotation around view axis (in degrees).

STEXU STEXV

Texture coordinate of sprite’s lower-left corner.

STEXW STEXH

Size of sprite in texture space.

SX SY

Sprite scale.

Controlled by Suppress Rule POP

SUPPPOS

Suppress default position rule.

SUPPVEL

Suppress default velocity rule.

SUPPUP

Suppress default up-vector rule.

SUPPAGE

Suppress default aging rule.

SUPPROT

1 if particle is suppressing its default rotation rule.

SUPPANGVEL

1 if particle is suppressing its default angular velocity rule.

Added by Up Vector POP

PVX PVY PVZ

Previous velocity.

UPX UPY UPZ

Up vector.

Added by Location, Source, Softbody, Split POPs

SPEED

Absolute speed of particle.