Houdini 18.0 Executing Tasks

Feedback loops

You can use for-each blocks to process looping, sequential chains of operations on work items.

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Overview

A TOPs Feedback Loop block lets you run a sequence of serially executed steps for multiple iterations.

A TOP network already behaves somewhat like a parallel loop: it runs as many work items at the same time as possible based on the scheduler settings. So there’s no need for a typical loop construct since "repeating the same action with different inputs" is just how the network works.

Sometimes, however, you want to run a series of steps serially rather than in parallel, and use the output of previous work items as input for subsequent work items. For simple simulations this is already handled by the ROP Fetch node, which is able to create batches that run as a single job, one frame at a time. For more complicated use cases, such as looping that spans multiple nodes, or where the size of the feedback loop isn’t fully known, you can use a feedback loop.

In a feedback loop block, the network runs the work items node by node, with later work items depending on the previous work items, forcing them to execute serially. Then when all work in an iteration is done, if the block specifies more than one iteration, it loops back to the start and executes the next loop.

Tip

Depending on the settings, a feedback loop block can also run multiple serial loops in parallel.

For example, imagine an RBD simulation where a jar is being filled with marbles, one handful at a time. The entire process could be run as a single simulation, however marbles at the bottom of the jar might become unstable and the numbered of simulated objects would keep growing. One way to manage this is to run the RBD simulation for the first handful of marbles and use its results as a static object in the second simulation. The result of the second sim and first sim combined would be static objects in the third sim, and so on. You can do this in TOPs using a feedback loop with a ROP Geometry in the loop block.

(Feedback loops are also used to implement command server chains, where the commands must be sent to the server sequentially, one at a time.)

How to

To...Do this

Create a feedback loop block

  1. In a TOP network editor, press ⇥ Tab and choose "For-Loop with Feedback".

    This tool puts down a Block Begin Feedback and a Block End Feedback node.

  2. Select the Begin node. In the parameter editor, choose how to specify the number of iterations:

    • The default is to run the number of iterations specified in the Iterations parameter. If the Begin node has upstream items, the loop runs iterations times for each incoming item.

      For example, you might have a loop that iteratively builds up a scene over the certain number of iterations (such as the "dropping marbles in a jar" example from the overview). You could then repeat the loop for each item generated by a Wedge node you wire into the Begin node.

    • If the Begin node has static work items, you can turn on Iterations from upstream items. This sets the number of iterations to be the number of upstream items. This repeats the sequential series of steps within the block once for each input item.

      For example, you could use a File Pattern node to list all of the files in a directory, and a loop block to iterate over the files and append the contents to a temporary file.

  3. If you Begin node generates items dynamically, you must also turn on Use dynamic partitioning on the End node.

  4. Wire nodes between the start and end nodes to make them part of the loop.

    Houdini draws a border around the nodes in the block to help you visualize it.

Cook parallel "side tasks" based off work items in the loop

If you wire out from a node inside the loop to a processor outside the loop (that is, not connected to the loop’s end node), the work items in that processor will generate based on the in-loop work items, but will be scheduled normally in parallel.

This can be useful for "side work" based on items in the loop but not required by the loop. For example, if the loop involves generating and manipulating images, you might generate thumbnails of the images outside the loop.

Tips and notes

  • You can use any processor node in a feedback loop. However, currently you cannot use a dynamic partitioner or mapper inside a feedback loop. You can use static partitioners, if the partitions only contain work items from the same loop iteration. If work items from different iterations are somehow partitioned together, the partition node will report an error.

  • You should color the start and end nodes of a block the same to make their relationship clear. The default nodes put down by the For-Loop tool are colored orange, but you can change the node colors. This is especially useful to distinguish nested loops.

    The border around the block takes on the color of the end node.

  • The begin node is a processor that generates loop iteration work items.

  • Each work item depends on the previous item from the same loop, and has attributes to identify the iteration and loop number.

    The feedback end node is a partitioner which partitions work items based on the loop iteration they're associated with. This is useful because the nodes in the feedback loop are free to fan out into as many additional items as needed, and the partitioner will collect them. The second loop iteration item in the begin node depends on the partition for the first loop iteration, and so on. If the loop begin is generating work items dynamically, the feedback end node must be set to use dynamic partitioning.

  • You can wire a node from outside the feedback block into a node inside the block that has multiple inputs.

Executing Tasks

Basics

Next steps

  • Running external programs

    How to wrap external functionality in a TOP node.

  • File tags

    Work items track the "results" created by their work. Each result is tagged with a type.

  • Feedback loops

    You can use for-each blocks to process looping, sequential chains of operations on work items.

  • Command servers

    Command blocks let you start up remote processes (such as Houdini or Maya instances), send the server commands, and shut down the server.

  • TOP Service Manager

    The TOP Service Manager manages pools of persistent Houdini sessions that can be used to reduce work item cooking time

  • Integrating PDG and render farm software

    How to use different schedulers to schedule and execute work.

  • Visualizing work item performance

    How to visualize the relative cook times (or file output sizes) of work items in the network.

  • Event Handling

    You can register a Python function to handle events from a PDG node or graph

  • Tips and tricks

    Useful general information and best practices for working with TOPs.

Reference

  • All TOPs nodes

    TOP nodes define a workflow where data is fed into the network, turned into "work items" and manipulated by different nodes. Many nodes represent external processes that can be run on the local machine or a server farm.

  • Processor Node Callbacks

    Processor nodes generate work items that can be executed by a scheduler

  • Partitioner Node Callbacks

    Partitioner nodes group multiple upstream work items into single partition

  • Scheduler Node Callbacks

    Scheduler nodes execute work items

  • Python API

    The classes and functions in the Python pdg package for working with dependency graphs.