Houdini 16.5 Rendering

PBR Lighting

How the Physically Based Rendering engine in mantra uses VEX to compute lighting.

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Mantra’s PBR engine uses functions written in VEX to compute lighting. The default implementations for these functions are in $HFS/houdini/vex/Surface, but you can replace them with your own implementations.


Mantra’s PBR engine calls pbrlighting() to compute lighting.

pbrlighting() first computes the possible light paths to evaluate by calling pbr_bounce_mask(). This is where bounce limits are used to prune ray trees.

If direct lighting is requested, the pbrlighting() function then iterates over all light sources, computing the direct illumination by calling pbr_direct_lighting() (see below).

pbrlighting() will also evaluate indirect illumination if needed by calling _pbr_pathtrace() (see below).

After the function computes direct and indirect illumination, it combines them and stores the values in light exports.

After this, the special case of shadow-matte evaluation is computed.


This function seems fairly straight-forward at first glance: it iterates over the light sources, calling lt->illuminate() to compute the amount of illumination from the light source.

However, the lt->illuminate() function is a bit opaque since it’s implemented as a method on an opaque struct. Currently, the illuminate() method is hard-coded to the mislighting() shader ($HFS/houdini/vex/Surface/mislighting.vfl).

The mislighting() shader does both light-centric and surface-centric sampling of the light source. The balance between light-centric and surface-centric is normally determined automatically by inspecting the BSDF on the surface. However, you can also use the MIS Bias property to manually tweak the sampling.

Light centric sampling will sample the light source and send rays to the surface. It does this by calling sample_light which generates sample points on the light source. Internally, the sample_light() function looks at the shader defined by the light:samplershader property in mantra. This shader is typically defined automatically by the SOHO light wrangler ($HH/soho/wranglers/HoudiniLightIFD.py). Currently this parameter cannot be overridden using a Houdini parameter, and will either be sampler_pclight() or sampler_geometry() function (found in $HH/vex/Light).

sample_pclight() is used to sample point clouds bound to the light. The wrangler ensures the pcfile is set properly.

sampler_geometry() calls sample_geometry. This function uses internal structures in mantra to evaluate a point on the geometry of the light source. sample_geometry() for light sources is handled differently for 3 broad categories of lights: Point Lights, Environment lights and Distant/Sun lights. For geometry objects, sample_geometry() evaluates the rendered geometry to determine shading positions.


This function computes indirect illumination, using various parameters to do variance anti-aliasing. It sends rays based on evaluation of the BSDF for the surface being shaded. The function propagates through the scene, integrating the illumination into the final results.

For each shading sample, the valid light paths are computed using pbr_bounce_mask (as in pbrlighting(), see above). If direct lighting is required, it’s computed by calling pbr_direct_lighting().

When sending a ray, the shader calls sample_bsdf to compute the ray information for the light path to evaluate, and then calls trace to send the ray. If required, the ray is then propagated from the hit position.

If the ray doesn’t hit any geometry for indirect illumination, resolvemissedray is called, which looks at the mantra setting for how to resolve missed rays.


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